Strength Training

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Strength trainers tend to focus on compound exercises to build basic strength, whereas bodybuilders often use isolation exercises to visually separate their muscles, and to improve muscular symmetry. Pre-contest training for bodybuilders is different again, in that they attempt to retain as much muscular tissue as possible while undergoing severe dieting.

However, the bodybuilding community has been the source of many strength training principles, techniques, vocabulary, and customs. It is widely accepted that strength training must be matched by changes in diet in order to be effective. Although aerobic exercise has been proven to have an effect on the dietary intake of macronutrients, strength training has not [53] and an increase in dietary protein is generally believed to be required for building skeletal muscle.

A review of 49 research studies found that supplementation of protein in the diet of healthy adults increased the size and strength of muscles during prolonged resistance exercise training; protein intakes of greater than 1. It was once thought that a high-protein diet entails risk of kidney damage, but studies have shown that kidney problems only occur in people with previous kidney disease.

However failure to properly hydrate can put an increased strain on the kidney's ability to function.

A light, balanced meal prior to the workout usually one to two hours beforehand ensures that adequate energy and amino acids are available for the intense bout of exercise. The type of nutrients consumed affects the response of the body, and nutrient timing whereby protein and carbohydrates are consumed prior to and after workout has a beneficial impact on muscle growth.

A protein shake is often consumed immediately [59] following the workout, because both protein uptake and protein usage are increased at this time. If consuming recovery drink after a workout, to maximize muscle protein anabolism, it is suggested that the recovery drink contain glucose dextrose , protein usually whey hydrolysate containing mainly dipeptides and tripeptides, and leucine. However, the effectiveness of some products is disputed and others are potentially harmful.

Due to the androgenic hormonal differences between males and females, the latter are generally unable to develop large muscles regardless of the training program used. Muscle is denser than fat, so someone who builds muscle while keeping the same body weight will occupy less volume; if two people weigh the same and are the same height but have different lean body mass percentages, the one with more muscle will appear thinner.

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In addition, though bodybuilding uses the same principles as strength training, it is with a goal of gaining muscle bulk. Strength trainers with different goals and programs will not gain the same mass as a professional bodybuilder. Some weight trainers perform light, high-repetition exercises in an attempt to "tone" their muscles without increasing their size. The word tone derives from the Latin "tonus" meaning "tension". In anatomy and physiology, as well as medicine, the term "muscle tone" refers to the continuous and passive partial contraction of the muscles, or the muscles' resistance to passive stretching during resting state as determined by a deep tendon reflex.

Muscle tonus is dependent on neurological input into the muscle.

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In medicine, observations of changes in muscle tonus can be used to determine normal or abnormal states which can be indicative of pathology. The common strength training term "tone" is derived from this use.

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What muscle builders refer to as a toned physique or "muscle firmness" is one that combines reasonable muscular size with moderate levels of body fat, qualities that may result from a combination of diet and exercise. Muscle tone or firmness is derived from the increase in actin and myosin cross filaments in the sarcomere. When this occurs the same amount of neurological input creates a greater firmness or tone in the resting continuous and passive partial contraction in the muscle.

Exercises of 6—12 reps cause hypertrophy of the sarcoplasm in slow-twitch and high-twitch muscle fibers , contributing to overall increased muscle bulk.

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This is not to be confused with myofibril hypertrophy which leads to strength gains. Both however can occur to an extent during this rep range. Even though most are of the opinion that higher repetitions are best for producing the desired effect of muscle firmness or tone, it is not. Low volume strength training of 5 repetitions or fewer will increase strength by increasing actin and myosin cross filaments thereby increasing muscle firmness or tone.

The low volume of this training will inhibit the hypertrophy effect. Lowered-calorie diets have no positive effect on muscle hypertrophy for muscle of any fiber type. They may, however, decrease the thickness of subcutaneous fat fat between muscle and skin , through an overall reduction in body fat, thus making muscle striations more visible. Exercises like sit-ups, or abdominal crunches, performs less work than whole-body aerobic exercises [65] thereby expending fewer calories during exercise than jogging, for example. Hypertrophy serves to maintain muscle mass, for an elevated basal metabolic rate , which has the potential to burn more calories in a given period compared to aerobics.

This helps to maintain a higher metabolic rate which would otherwise diminish after metabolic adaption to dieting, or upon completion of an aerobic routine.

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In general, one can lose weight by being on a calorie deficit. A calorie deficit can be done in different ways; It can be done by consuming less than the amount of calories that are required to maintain your current body weight or by increasing the energy expenditure , enough that is more than the calorie intake. Lean muscles require calories to maintain themselves at rest, which will help reduce fat through an increase in the basal metabolic rate. Until the 20th century, the history of strength training was very similar to the history of weight training.

With the advent of modern technology, materials and knowledge, the methods that can be used for strength training have multiplied significantly. Hippocrates explained the principle behind strength training when he wrote "that which is used develops, and that which is not used wastes away", referring to muscular hypertrophy and atrophy. Progressive resistance training dates back at least to Ancient Greece , when legend has it that wrestler Milo of Croton trained by carrying a newborn calf on his back every day until it was fully grown. Another Greek, the physician Galen , described strength training exercises using the halteres an early form of dumbbell in the 2nd century.

Ancient Persians used the meels , which became popular during the 19th century as the Indian club, and has recently made a comeback in the form of the clubbell. The dumbbell was joined by the barbell in the latter half of the 19th century. Early barbells had hollow globes that could be filled with sand or lead shot , but by the end of the century these were replaced by the plate-loading barbell commonly used today. Strength training with isometric exercise was popularised by Charles Atlas from the s onwards.

The s saw the gradual introduction of exercise machines into the still-rare strength training gyms of the time. Strength training became increasingly popular in the s following the release of the bodybuilding movie Pumping Iron and the subsequent popularity of Arnold Schwarzenegger.

The 5 Best Strength Training Exercises for Beginners

Orthopaedic specialists used to recommend that children avoid weight training because the growth plates on their bones might be at risk. The very rare reports of growth plate fractures in children who trained with weights occurred as a result of inadequate supervision, improper form or excess weight, and there have been no reports of injuries to growth plates in youth training programs that followed established guidelines. Younger children are at greater risk of injury than adults if they drop a weight on themselves or perform an exercise incorrectly; further, they may lack understanding of, or ignore the safety precautions around weight training equipment.

As a result, supervision of minors is considered vital to ensuring the safety of any youth engaging in strength training. Strength training is the fourth most popular form of fitness in Australia. Some points of the opposing view of strength training in young adolescence are stunted growth, health and bone problems in later stages of life and unhealthy eating habits.

There is no link between any prolonged health risks and strength training in pre-adolescence if the procedures of strength training are followed correctly and under suitable supervision.

Strength training exercises -

Strength training for pre-adolescents should focus on skills and techniques. Children should only work on strengthening all the big muscle groups, using free weight and body weight movements with relatively light loads. The benefits of these practices include increased strength performance, injury prevention and learning good training principles. Older adults are prone to loss of muscle strength. Under-dosed strength training programs should be avoided in favor of a program which matches the abilities and goals of the person exercising. In setting up an exercise program for an older adult, they should go through a baseline fitness assessment to determine their current limits.

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  • Any exercise program for older adults should match the intensity, frequency, and duration of exercise that the person can perform. The program should have a goal of increased strength as compared to the baseline measurement. Recommended training for older adults is three times a week of light strength training exercises. Exercise machines are a commonly used equipment in a gym setting, including treadmills with exercises such as walking or light jogging.

    Home-based exercises should usually consist of body weight or elastic band exercises that maintain a low level of impact on the muscles. Weights can also be used by older adults if they maintain a lighter weight load with an average amount of repetitions 10—12 reps with suitable supervision. It is important for older adults to maintain a light level of strength training with low levels of impact to avoid injuries. Older people who exercise against a resistance or force become stronger.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about basic principles. For strength training using weights, see weight training. It is not to be confused with Resistance to interrogation. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources.

    Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. See also: Weight training: Types of exercises. Main article: Weight training exercises. See also: Power training. This section contains instructions, advice, or how-to content. The purpose of Wikipedia is to present facts, not to train. Please help improve this article either by rewriting the how-to content or by moving it to Wikiversity , Wikibooks or Wikivoyage.

    July Main article: Bodybuilding. This article needs additional citations for verification. In Hopkins G ed. Cardiovascular Journal of Africa. Retrieved Bibcode : PNAS.. Washington, D. Royal Soc. Principles and Practice of Resistance Training. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.